US employers can legally require their workers to get vaccinated for COVID-19, but it is likely most will choose to make the shot optional instead, employment lawyers say.
Businesses have been weighing up whether to implement a mandatory vaccination policy among staff as the release of a coronavirus vaccine to the general public looms.
The fast-tracked development of the shot is a long-awaited breakthrough amid the ongoing pandemic but has also sparked debate over how safe it actually is and if it should be compulsory in the workplace.
Employers generally have legal authority to require staff to get vaccinated against the virus, though there are some exceptions.
The prospect of the coronavirus vaccine being widely available to the public has raised questions about whether it should be made mandatory at the workplace. Pictured: A clinical trial patient being vaccinated
HHS officials said on Tuesday that they’re prepared to distribute 6.4 million doses of Pfizer’s coronavirus vaccine in the first wave of its rollout as soon as the shot is given its expected FDA emergency approval next month
And conversely, workers have the right to object to mandatory vaccinations under anti-discrimination laws such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which allows employees to be exempt if it goes against a ‘sincerely held religious belief’.
Likewise, those with medical disabilities can request an exemption under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
But like all legal frameworks, there are exceptions and variations depending on the case and jurisdiction, meaning imposing a mandatory policy can present a difficult and time-consuming legal challenge for employers.
Legal experts therefore believe employers will most likely stray away from such programs, which would also make them liable if an employee suffers an adverse reaction.
Leading labor and employment law firm Ogletree Deakins, which recently formed a advice ‘task force’ due to an influx of queries from employers, says companies should consider the ‘politicized nature’ of the virus and expect objections if they choose to make the vaccine mandatory.
Pharmaceutical manufacturers – Pfizer and Moderna (pictured) have reported effective results in their trials
Dr Robert Redfield said the first batch coronavirus vaccines will likely roll out across the US starting the second week of December
‘If large numbers of people feel the need to be exempt from wearing a mask (which is significantly less intrusive than receiving a vaccination), then employers likely can expect an equal or greater objection to a new vaccine,’ attorneys James Paul, Bret Daniel and Jimmy Robinson said.
LEGAL EXEMPTIONS FOR MANDATORY VACCINATION PROGRAMS
Religious Accommodations Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
The law prohibits employers from discriminating against any individual because of their race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
This means employees can request an exemption to mandatory vaccination programs if it goes against a ‘sincerely held religious belief.’
Establishing the case may be challenging however, depending on how jurisdictions define religious beliefs.
Personal or ethical objections or personal anti-vaccination positions are not covered by this law.
Medical Accommodations Under the ADA
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employees can object to a mandatory vaccine policy for medical reasons.
The worker is required to prove they have a medical condition that makes it unsafe to get a vaccine.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970
Section 11(c) of the act pertains to whistle blower rights.
‘An employee who refuses vaccination because of a reasonable belief that he or she has a medical condition that creates a real danger of serious illness or death (such as serious reaction to the vaccine)’ may be protected under this law.
The law firm said it will also be difficult to predict how rules surrounding required vaccinations will translate in the pandemic era.
Current case law applies to those in the healthcare industry which is considered a high-risk work setting, therefore other employers outside that sector may have a harder time fighting for those policies in court, according to the firm.
However, the severity and novelty of the coronavirus has also prompted exceptions by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
The EEOC earlier this year designated it as a ‘direct threat‘ meaning an infected person poses or a ‘significant risk of substantial harm’ to others.
The updated standard allows ‘more extensive medical inquiries and controls in the workplace than typically allowed under the ADA.’
A direct threat ‘permits employers to implement medical testing and other screening measures the ADA would usually prohibit.’
Despite this, the law firm noted the EEOC has been ‘traditionally hostile’ to mandatory vaccination programs.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) however, is more likely ‘to defer’ to such policies, legal experts said.
However OSHA is neither without its exemptions to the rule.
During the H1N1 influenza in 2009, the agency said an employee could be entitled to whistleblower rights if they refuse vaccination due to a ‘reasonable belief that he or she has a medical condition that creates a real danger of serious illness or death’.
With all the uncertainty surrounding the vaccine, legal experts advise employers to stay across new guidance that will likely be issued by federal and state authorities once the vaccine is approved.
‘Imposition of a mandatory COVID-19 vaccine will almost certainly result in a slew of accommodation requests – medical, religious, personal, and ethical—fueled by mistrust of political leaders and the healthcare industry,’ Olgetree Deakins said.
‘A mandatory vaccination policy may or may not be right for one’s workplace, but as employers explore their options they may want to proceed with caution’.
Employment lawyers warned that businesses can expect ‘an equal or greater objection’ to their mandatory vaccination policies, judging by the pushback observed from existing mask requirements (stock image)
On Tuesday, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) director Dr Robert Redfield predicted coronavirus vaccines will likely start rolling out across the US the second week of December.
US officials also said they plan to release 6.4million vaccine doses nationwide in an initial distribution after the first one is cleared by regulators for emergency use.
Three pharmaceutical manufacturers – Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca – have announced early results.
But the rollout faces a patchwork of state plans, a transitioning White House and potential backlash from vaccine skeptics, despite the rising US death toll of nearly 260,000 people.
Biden’s campaign called for $25billion for vaccines to ‘guarantee it gets to every American, cost-free.’
That’s similar to the amount included in both the House and the Senate bills, through different strategies, and Congress previously mandated that vaccines be free.
With fresh legislation stalled, it’s uncertain if states will have the resources needed once the FDA approves the vaccines.
As Congress debates funding, at least two Republican senators are participating in vaccine trials as a way to build confidence among Americans skeptical of the federal effort.
Meanwhile Governor Bill Lee said Tuesday that vaccines will be very important for Tennessee to ‘ultimately really be able to handle’ the pandemic.
But he says he doesn’t foresee vaccine mandates for school districts in Tennessee.
In his words, ‘Vaccines are a choice and people have the choice and will have the choice in this state as to whether or not they should take that vaccine.’
The state’s health commissioner says the first doses could arrive in Tennessee around December 15.
The first wave will be reserved for frontline health care workers and first responders. She says widespread availability would likely be in late spring or early summer.
Source: Daily Mail |World News